What is biometrics? How many types of biometrics and what are they?

What is biometrics? How many types of biometrics and what are they?
What is biometrics? How many types of biometrics and what are they?

What is Biometrics?

With the help of information and communication technology, people can no longer go to the office court and sign the attendance register. Instead, it is becoming possible to control daily attendance and office access by using physiological, behavioral components through the relevant controls of various information technologies. Currently, many smart offices are using such technology in multiple ways. Have you seen such a modern office?

The science that usually deals with biological information is called biometrics. Biometrics identifies human behavioral characteristics. It works by unit or group during observation. Biometrics is a type of technique by which a person’s physical constitution determines a specific person, behavior, characteristics, qualities, personality, etc. Computers to identify individuals or groups in the corner and monitor their entry process. This technology is used in science. In addition to accurate person identification, it is also used for automated audits, safety searches, and monitoring according to physical characteristics. Thus, biometrics is a method of identifying a specific person based on the structure or behavioral factors of different parts of the human body. 

The word biometrics has been taken from the Greek words ‘bio’ (life) and ‘metric’ (to measure). Nowadays, biometrics security has become very popular. This method is used for safety in any place database or information system. In this method, passwords are used for those features of the human being which act as a unit.

Types of biometrics:

Types of biometrics methods based on body composition and behavioral characteristics are shown in the form of tables.

Physiological features: Body structure and physiological features include human face recognition, fingerprints, handprints, eyeballs and retina scans, DNA formation. Below is a description of:


Face Recognition :

Human face or face recognition is a type of program or software that is used to identify a person’s face by examining the nature of the structure. In this case, the face image of the person in the corner is compared with the image stored in the computer. In this method, a person is identified by measuring the distance between the two eyes, the length, and diameter of the nose, the angular amount of the jaw, etc.
Usage: Used to identify a suspect in a corner, to guard the entrance to a building or room. This method is used to ensure the security of digital data.

Advantages: This method is a relatively inexpensive technology and easy to use and it gives accurate results.

Disadvantages: Due to the difference in facial expressions, it is often difficult to identify the face in this method. This method is less effective in short hair, sunglasses, hats, scarves, beards, long hair, makeup, etc.

Finger Print :
A fingerprint reader is a device that uses human fingerprints as input. After receiving it, it is tested in conjunction with a fingerprint saved from the past. Fingerprints are converted to digital data through a device called ‘Finger Print Reader’. Before using biometrics technology, the user’s fingerprint has to be saved in the database. The fingerprint reader then reads the skin on the underside of the finger and compares it to the preserved impression. The reader works in an electromagnetic manner based on the skin tissue and the blood circulation under the skin.

Usage: This method is widely used in access control, banking payment system, court evidence, DNA identification to ensure security.

Advantages: The cost of this method is comparatively less and less time-consuming. It takes. The success of this method is almost 100% as the fingerprint never changes.

Disadvantages: If there is a wound or cut on the finger if the finger is dry or dirty, this method does not show proper results.

Hand Geometry :

The shape and geometric structure of each human hand are different from each other. Biometrics devices can be used to detect the shape of a human hand or to determine the shape and size of a person’s hand. In this method, after placing the user’s handprint in a specific place on the reader, the database checks the value obtained with the stored value in less than 5 seconds and gives the result.

Usage: This method is effectively used in ensuring the presence of employees in different institutions, in arrival and departure at the airport, in controlling the entry in educational institutions. Besides, hand geometry is most used in-court identification, various data centers, national identity cards, mobile SIM registration.

Advantages: This method is easy to use. In this case, a little memory is required.

Disadvantages: The installation cost of this method is high, the cost of the device is relatively high. It is not useful for arthritis or rheumatism. Its results are less subtle than fingerprints.

Iris and Retina Scan : 
The visible-colored part of a human eye gemstone does not match the human eye gemstone in the other corner. It is unique and enduring. This method is identified by analyzing the colored rings around the eyeball. In this method, you have to stand in front of a device with a camera by fixing your eyes and head. It takes about 1 to 10 seconds. Identification is done by matching the pattern of the iris of the eye captured from the east.

Usage: This method is used in financial institutions, important government institutions, military.

Advantages: This method takes very little time (1 to 10 seconds) to detect. The results of this method are comparatively more subtle than fingerprints or handprints. It also has a security identification system, which is permanent and visible.

Disadvantages: This method is very expensive and requires relatively more memory. This method is problematic for spectacle users. Using this method causes eye damage.

DNA Structure : 
In the case of structural biology, the structure of DNA (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid) and between different molecules. This strategy helps in modeling and simulation on interrelated issues. Being the main part of the human body. DNA and this DNA control the lineage of every human being. It is possible to find out the identity of a person from a drop of blood or a part of the hair through a DNA test. DNA tests are called by different names.
1. DNA profiling,
2. DNA typing and
3. Genetic fingerprints etc.

We are not the same. All the people in the world look different. The main reason is DNA. 99.9% of human DNA is similar to one human; The remaining 0.1% discrepancy is due to the diversity in humans. DNA testing is a completely effective method of identifying these differences. Different types of personal items (such as hair, blood, saliva, sperm, etc.) are used for DNA testing, such as toothbrushes, razors, etc. DNA can also be collected from the skeletons of people who have been buried under the ground for a long time. In humans, fingerprinting is done by collecting DNA from leukocytes, hair follicles, or bone marrow cells. The collected DNA is mainly collected in test tubes and kept cold or at low temperatures for preservation. The National Forensic DNA Profiling Laboratory was established in 2006 for DNA testing or DNA profiling. However, DNA testing is done only in cases registered by the police or directed by the court. Sir Alec Jeffries is said to be the father of DNA profiling.

Usage: This method is widely used in the diagnosis of paternity, identification of culprits, identification of mutilated corpses, identification of genetic similarity of endangered animals.

Advantages: The DNA method helps to identify the real culprit. If there is no defect in the method, then the success in this method of identification is 100%.

Disadvantages: The cost of this method is much higher. Profiling DNA samples from mixed samples is very difficult. The success of the operation is seen in the fact that the DNA fingerprint is one in the case of the co-twins. Lack of skills, expertise, and vigilance of the staff in the laboratory affects the results.


Depending on the behavioral characteristics of the person, the biometrics method can be based on keystrokes, signatures, voice recognition, etc.

Below is a description of:

Keystroke: Keystroke is the detailed information of time knowledge. When a person works on a computer keyboard, pressing and releasing each ‘key’ gives the correct description. The password is entered by typing in a specific corner and is analyzed.

Usage: Use the keyboard to determine the level of work, the speed of the key to determining the information available.

Advantages: This method makes it easy to analyze data.

Disadvantage: In this case, the password is often confused.

Signature :
This is an acceptable method at all levels. There are different types of the handwriting of different people. The signature of one does not exactly match the signature of the other. The user’s handwriting is checked by signature identification. The user’s signature is identified by checking the signature size, writing speed, time, and pen pressure. It is impossible to duplicate all the parameters of a signature. In this method, a special type of pen and pad or tablet is used.

Usage: This method is used for identification in schools, colleges, bank insurance institutions, government offices, and courts.

Advantages: This method is less costly to use and also takes less time to detect.

Disadvantages: This method cannot be used for those who do not know the signature. In addition, the results of this method are comparatively less than the fingerprint.

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